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The epidemic of smallpox in Northeastern Siberia and the first attempts to prevent it

 

Nikolaev V. P.


Annotation. Smallpox is one of the most dangerous human infectious diseases in the world, which claimed an estimated half a billion lives [1]. Smallpox reached the territory of Northeastern Siberia in the middle of the 17th century. It was spread by people from the European part of the Russian Empire. The devastating epidemics of smallpox led to the verge of extinction of entire tribal communities and small ethnic groups, especially in the Arctic. The article analyzes literary and archival materials on the history of smallpox and folk remedies used for the prevention of smallpox in the territory of Northeastern Siberia, particularly in Yakutia.


Key words: Smallpox, epidemics, vaccination against smallpox, Siberia, Northeast Siberia, the history of smallpox, folk remedies, Kiibes, Otosut.


For citations: Nikolaev V.P. Epidemics of smallpox in Northeastern Siberia and the first attempts to prevent it // Siberian Research. 2019. 2 (2). P. 26–30, http://doi.org/10.33384/26587270.2019.02.003r.


Received Oсtober 5, 2019, accepted for publication November 6, 2019, published December 1, 2019.

 

About the author


NIKOLAEV Valerian Parfentyevich, MD, PhD, Yakut scientific center of complex medical problems, 677019, Yakutsk, Sergelehskoye Highway 4, Russia, e-mail: nikolaevvalerian@mail.ru.

 

REFERENCES

 

1. Smallpox: the death of a disease: the inside story of eradicating a worldwide killer / by D.A. Henderson/ 2013 by Prometheus Books, New–York, 2008.

2. Mitskevich S.I. «Spasibo, bolshoy toyon!»: Sbornik vospominaniy, statey, pisem i dokumentov /Sost. I.I. Fedoseev [«Thank you, big toyon!»: A collection of memoirs, articles, letters and documents / Comp. I.I. Fedoseev.]. 2008. Якутск. P.25 [in Russian].

3. Тikhonov D.G. Grozit li chelovechestvu vozvrat epidemiy ospyi? [Does the return of smallpox epidemics threaten humanity?] // Yakut. medical journal.2004. № 2 (6). P. 34–6 [in Russian].

4.  Tyrylgin M.A. Istoki fenomenalnoy zhiznesposobnosti naroda sakha. [The origins of the phenomenal vitality of the Sakha people]. Yakutsk: Beechik, 2000. С. 213-218 [in Russian].

5. NA RS (Ya) [National Archives of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)]. F. 343-i. Op. 1, D. 447. P. 1–8 [in Russian].

6. Obschee obozrenie Yakutskoy oblasti 1892–1902 gg. // Pamyatnaya knizhka Yakutskoy oblasti na 1902 g. [General Review of the Yakutsk Region 1892–1902 // Memorial book of the Yakutsk region in 1902]: Yakut. reg. stat. com Yakutsk: Publishing house of the region. Control]. 1902. [In Russian].

7. Nikiforov V.V. - Kulumnyur. Solntse svetit vsem: Stati, pisma, proizvedeniya / Cost. I.E. Fedoseev. [The sun shines on everyone: Articles, letters, works / Comp. I.E. Fedoseev]. Yakutsk: Beechik,2001.  P. 328 [in Russian].

8. Khudyakov I.A. Kratkoe opisanie Verhoyanskogo okruga (otdelnyie glavyi) [A brief description of the Verkhoyansk district (separate chapters)]. Yakutsk: Beechik,2002. P. 181–184 [in Russian].

9. Petukhov I.M. Mediko-istoricheskiy obzor Verho¬yanskogo okruga // Pamyatnaya knizhka Yakutskoy oblasti na 1871 g. [Medical and historical review of the Verkhovyana district // Memorial book of the Yakutsk region in 1871], St. Petersburg.1872. P. 5–93 [in Russian].

10. Iz istorii Kutaninskogo naslega / N.I. Ivanov. Kuola uchuutal [From the history of Kutaninsky nasleg / N.I. Ivanov. Kuol uchuutal]. Yakutsk: Kompaniya «Dani AlmaS». 2012. С. 17 – 18 [in Yakut].

 

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HISTORY OF MEDICINE

Executive Editor

Humanitarian Research
Action member of the Petrovsky Academy of Arts and Sciences, associate professor of the Arctic State Institute of Culture and Arts

Yu.V. Spiridonov

 

Executive Editor

of the English edition
Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of English Philology Institute of Foreign Phi-lology and Area Studies, North-Eastern Federal University

S.V. Filippova

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